The Super Soldier Serum was developed by Dr. Maria Vaselli, an Italian scientist, who was forced to develop the serum for the fascists in 1937.
The first test subject is a rat who immediatly turns a bright redish color and is covered with black scar-like tissue. The next subject was an Italian boy who was kidnapped for the experiment. The tratment enhanced his mind and body, but altered his skin similarly, giving his face a red, skull like appearance. After the test on the boy Dr. Vaselli defected to America, where she perfected the formula. It was used on Steve Rogers, a young man suffering from polio and denied entry into the armed services. The formula cured his polio and gave him enhanced strength, speed, and stamina as well as near-instant healing abilities. However shortly after being injected with the serum Dr. Vaselli was murdered by a Nazi spy among the military onlookers.
Never wanting her formula to fall into the wrong hands the doctor never wrote it down, thus secret formula died with her.